Most U.S. states use some form of statistical acceptance in highway construction, and specifically in pavements. A statistical acceptance specification is only one way of accepting or rejecting work; other methods such as accepting with no inspection and full inspection are also commonly used, however each method has its specific areas of applicability. Regardless of the details of accept / reject methods, they are all only designed to monitor or audit a process. They do not provide any means of process or product improvement and should not be used to achieve such goals.
Figure 1 is an example of a statistical specification.